英语四级考试作文题型分析与范文参考



英语四级考试作文题型分析与范文参考
一、 图表图图题型 (Graphs/Tables and Cartoons/Pictures) 表格 和图 表题 型 表格 和图 表题 型写 作注 意 事项
?仔细仔仔题目以及提示信息,看看、看清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化阴阴和阴向,然后根据 图表所图示的中心信息图定内容图图以及主题句。 ?仔细观仔分析图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要,最有代表性,最核心的信息,然后根据然文的主 旨去旨旨运用所旨取的关旨信息,切切简单地切列图表所给出的信息。 ?表格和图表题型写作一般采用一般现在时,但如果图表给出了具体时间参但,则应对时态进行相应的则则 ?表格和图表题型可以细分为表格,曲线图、柱形图和柱形图。 ? 表格形式要求考生对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规从。 ?曲线图形式要求考生认真观仔曲曲系所图示的数据信息,并并密切注意并汇在曲曲并并和并并上的数字及 单位。 ? 柱形图形式要求考生通过柱度相等的柱形的高度或长度柱别来柱柱事柱的动态发展阴阴,故考生应密切关 注曲曲线上的注度单位及图表注边的提示说明与文字。 ?柱形图形式旨在要求考生看图理解并理述一个理分理成大理不等切理的柱形图所理达的信息。考生应清楚 掌握部分与则体,部分与部分之间的相互关系,这种关系通常是以这分比的数字形式给出的。 ?列出各段的主题句。考生可以根据所给提纲或考知信息列出每段的主题句,为然文的展开为为道为。 ?严格围严主题句展开段落。 ?检查与检检。表格与图表写作的检查与检检应查重检查文章中所列举的信息是查与图表所图示的信息一致
表格 和图 表题 型写 作中 常 用的 核心 句型 表表 如下 :

  1. According to the figures given in the table,…
  2. This chart shows that...
  3. As is shown by the graph,...
  4. It can be seen from the statistics (chart \diagram \table graph\ figures)that...
  5. It is generally believed(accepted\ thought\ held) that …
  6. There is slight (slow\ steady\ rapid)increase (decrease\ decline \reduction\fall\drop\rise) in demand(income.\population\prices\production).
  7. be on the increase (decrease\ rise \decline)(...在不柱地增加,减少,上升,下下)
  8. From the table, it can be seen (concluded\shown\estimated\calculated\inferred) that…
  9. During the period 1900?2000 (From 1900?2000\Since 1900\For a decade, from 1905?2005 )
其它常用表达Other Useful Expressions and Structures: 介绍 图表
As is shown/described/illustrated/indicated/revealed in the cartoon/picture/graph/chart/table, ... As can be clearly seen from the cartoon… What a vivid picture it is! It tells us that… According to the table..., As can be seen from the table..., It can be seen from the table...
It is self-evident that…, It goes without saying that…, There is no denying the fact that…
统计 数据 的表 达方 法
increase/fall slightly/a little/sharply/dramatically/drastically from...to..., skyrocket/soar/rise/ decline/jump from…to… remain steady at..., level off at…, peak at..., reach the climax at..., reach the low at…, account for... twice/three... times as many/much as..., one fifth/a quarter/a third/a half of...
数 据 变化 的表 达方 法
The number/amount of...increased/jumped/rose/decreased/dropped/fell/ suddenly/rapidly/ steadily/ gradually/ slowly/slightly from...to... There was a sudden/rapid/dramatic/significant/sharp/steady/gradual/slow/slight decrease/drop/fall in the number/amount of...from...to...
开头 和结 尾的 常用 句型
dramatically/ sharply/
increase/jump/rise/
The two graphs describe the same thing seen in two different ways. The first diagram simply records…The second graph throws a new light on… The key findings taken from the surveys are as follows:… This table provides several important points of comparison between A and B.
一般图表作文的特征主要体现在第一段,该段的任务是描述图表同时点明图表所要表达的主题或说明的问题, 如:
As is shown in the table (or in the picture)...dropped from... in 1994 to...in 19
  96.According to the figures given in the table, ...has great increased (or decreased) in the past...years (or decades), reaching...in 19
  96. From the table we can also see that there has been a sharp decline (or rise) in...It is clear that
大家 看下 面的 实例 ,注 意 体会 图表 作文 的写 作特 点 : 实例12002年6月真题
Directions: For this part you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 120 words and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below
Average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week

  1. 上图所示为1990年、1995年、2002年某校大学生事业计算机的情况,请描述其变化;
  2. 请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明) ;
  3. 你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。 Model Composition Great changes have taken place in student use of computers in the university. The hours the student spent on computers per week skyrocketed from about 2 in 1990 to 20 in 2000, more than 9 times higher. This rapid increase proves that students were in closer contact with computers. To account for this phenomenon, people have come up with various reasons as listed below. In the first place, with the drop in prices of computers, more students could afford computers, therefore they could spend much more time with computers. In the second place, the computers were applied to wider and wider use and students had to take advantage of this modern invention. Last but not the least important, the development of society pushed computers into more dormitories. Whatever the reason, there are still some problems with student use of computers. To begin with, many students still have no computers of their own. What’ more, many students use computers only to play e-games s and browse porn websites, which causes harm to their mind.(172 words)
实例21991年6月真题 年 月真题 实例 Changes in People’s Diet 1986 Food Grain Milk Meat Fruit& Vegetable Total 49\\\\% 10\\\\% 17\\\\% 24\\\\% 100\\\\% 47\\\\% 11\\\\% 20\\\\% 22\\\\% 100\\\\%
  46.5\\\\% 11\\\\%
  22.5\\\\% 20\\\\% 100\\\\% 45\\\\% 12\\\\% 23\\\\% 20\\\\% 100\\\\% 45\\\\% 13\\\\% 21\\\\% 21\\\\% 100\\\\% 1987 1988 1989 1990
?State the changes in people’s diet in the past five years. ?Give possible reasons for the changes. ?Draw your own conclusion
Model Composition As is shown in the above table, great changes took place on people’ diet from 1986 to 19
  90. On the whole, s the consumption of grain decreased year by year, while that of some high-energy food, such as milk and meat, increased consistently. In my opinion, there are two major reasons for the changes in people’s diet. On one hand, people gave their attention to the quality of their diet. On the other hand, they could afford to buy more expensive food with better nutrition owing to the increase of their income. From the above, we can see that people’s living standard improved remarkably in the five years from 1986 to 19
  90. And we can also anticipate that they will live more and more comfortably and healthily in the future. (128 words)
实例3 Employment Problem of College Graduates Year Number of Unemployed Graduates 2002 380,000 20
  03(Estimated) 20
  04(Estimated) 420,000 500,000
?描写2002年到2004年找不到工作的大学毕业生的人数变化; ?分析原因(高校扩招使毕业生供给大于需求,很多毕业生只愿留在大城市,毕业生的专业不适合社会需要 等) ?给出解决问题的办法。
Model Composition As is demonstrated in the table, more and more college graduates are out of a job in our country, which is a serious problem to our economic development and social security. It is estimated that in 2004, there will be 500,000 unemployed graduates, more than 30\\\\% higher than in 20
  02. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. In the first place, as the enrollment of college students has grown by more than 30\\\\% annually since 1998, more and more students are thrown into the labor market. However, our annual GDP growth has been about 8\\\\%. Therefore, the supply of labor exceeds the demand, hence a shortage of positions. In the second place, many graduates do not want to work in medium-sized and small cities or towns where they are most needed. Instead, too many of them crowd in big cities like Beijing, Shanghai or Guangzhou. Serious as the problem seems, we can come up with some measures to deal with it. On one hand, the government should develop our national economy more rapidly, creating more job opportunities. On the other hand, the college students must be realistic in choosing jobs. Only in these ways can we hope to solve the problem. (201 words) 实例4 The Average Life Expectancy in America? 190 0
  47.3 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
Year ALE
50

  54.1

  59.7

  62.9

  68.7

  69.7

  70.8

  73.8
?State the changes in the average life expectancy in America; ?Explain the reasons for the changes; ?Draw your conclusions.
二、应用文题型 (Applied Writing) ) 应用文的范围很广,包括书信、便条、广告、简历以及通知等诸方面。英语考试中的应用文以书信为主、兼 或有报告、演讲词、导游介绍之类的要求,这一点在大学英语四级考试中屡有所见。 书 信 英文书信一般包括六个部分:
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
信头写信人的地址和日期 收信人内文地址收信人的姓名及地址 称呼对收信人的称谓语,写在内文地址以下两行 正文写信人的身份及写信目的 结束客套语信尾谦辞 签名 称谓(Salutation)
这儿指写信人对收信人的称谓。从左边顶格写起,自成一行,比信内地址低两行。其开头词和专有名词的第 一个字母还应大写。称谓后,英国人喜用逗号,而美国人则用冒号。 ? 正文(Body)
正文是书信的主要部分。通常在低于称呼一行处写起,每段开头要向后缩进五到八个字母。正文从内容结构 上一般包括: ? 写信人的身份及写信目的位于开头部分,一般是寒暄或点明写信的目的;要写得贴切、热情、 恰如其分。 ? 写信人的想法,请求等细节位于中间部分,叙述一封信的主要内容,要求写得具体明了,直截了当
? 向收信人表示谢意、希望等位于结尾部分,通常写一些表示祝愿、问候、感谢等结束敬语或希望 之类的话语。 下面是一些写信时的常用表达: 开头语常用表达: ? 寒暄或关于“接到你的某月某日的信”
Excuse me of not writing you for such a long time. Your letter dated the 10th inst. (instant 本月) is at hand. I feel complimented by the kindness of your letter which arrived this morning. Words can’t express my delight of receiving your letter dated Aug.
  27. ? 点明目的,表示通知、消息。
I am writing to ask if you can do me a favor. I have the pleasure to tell you that our friend, Jim, will get married in the New Year’s Day. I am very much delighted to inform that you will get a promotion soon. 结尾语常用表达: ? ? ? ? We send you our best wishes. With best regards. Looking forward to hearing from you soon. Love to all you.
? Please give my best regards to your family / parents. ? All the luck in the world to you.
结尾谦辞(Complementary Close) 。 结尾谦辞指写信人对收信人的谦辞称,写在正文下第二、三行处,从信纸中间稍向右处或齐头左顶格写起,
第一字母大写,末尾加逗号。结尾谦辞根据通信人之间关系的亲疏恰当选择。常见的有以下几种: ? 通常使用:
Sincerely,(Your Sincerely; Sincerely yours; Most sincerely) Truly, (Yours truly; very truly yours) ? 给上级、长辈、领导或公务信件用:
Respectively yours, Faithfully yours, ? 一般同事或熟人之间用:
Yours ever, Your friend, Cordially yours, ? 写出亲属或关系非常亲密的是:
With love, Love, All my love, Forever yours Yours affectionately, Your loving son / daughter 书信作文的语体问题 就书信作文而言,作文内容固然重要,但语体更是问题。英文书信大致可分为事务书信(Business Letters) 和个人书信(Personal Letters)两种。前者是单位与单位或个人与单位之间来往的信件,语体比较正规(formal) ; 后者则是个人与个人之间的飞鸿,表达较为随便(Personal) 。但有时,同一封信可以采用正式与非正式两种语体 表达,这就要求考生具有明辨和变换语体的能力。会变换语体,就要掌握大量词汇和句子结构、套语,尤其是同 义词的不同感情色彩以及委婉语气和祈使句的应用。 一般说来, 正式文多采用包含would, should, might 等情态动 词的语句,
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